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Evaluating the benefits of post-fault demand response - network performance

During the trial it was essential to quantify the technical performance of C2C to understand its long-term potential when deployed on typical distribution networks. Specifically we considered the impact of C2C operation on available demand capacity, DG capacity, electrical losses, power quality and fault levels. 

Working in partnership with the University of Strathclyde we generated data and developed representative simulation models of the trial networks to understand the theoretical maximum limits and effects of C2C operation on the above criteria. We carried out system studies to establish the performance of the network under present and future scenarios. Particular attention was given to quantifying the benefits of interconnected (closed-ring) HV network operation over conventional radial (open-ring) operation. 

The simulation studies of actual C2C circuits showed that C2C operation can release significant demand and DG capacity. On average, C2C operation can achieve up to approximately a 76% increase in demand and a 225% increase in DG, compared with defined base case scenarios. However, the results depend significantly on the individual circuit topologies, the thermal ratings of circuit sections, and load or DG locations. On average, interconnected C2C operation (with closed HV rings) releases more demand and DG capacity when compared to radial C2C operation (with radial HV feeders). Furthermore, a ‘holistic’ system approach is required when considering the connection of load or generation; other technical factors (such as primary transformer ratings) or non-technical factors (such as cost-effectiveness) may affect the maximum capacity which can be released by a particular HV circuit. 

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This report documents work undertaken by the University of Strathclyde to quantify the technical performance of C2C network operation on electrical distribution systems.  

   
       

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