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Evaluating the benefits of post-fault demand response - carbon impact

By releasing latent network capacity C2C should reduce carbon emissions related to reinforcement work; and by releasing capacity quicker, C2C should reduce emissions related to the connection of low carbon technologies. To evaluate this potential carbon reduction we worked in partnership with the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research to carry out detailed modelling and assessment.

The purpose of this research was to quantify the impact of C2C, compare this to traditional reinforcement and understand the major sources of emissions in each to better enable management of distribution networks.

The Tyndall Centre developed a robust and comprehensive methodology to inform the carbon impact model, taking inputs from the power flow assessment and associated economic modelling. 

Our assessment showed that embodied carbon reductions are observed in the vast majority of scenarios and circuit combinations. In cases where C2C is not able to meet all the required demand/DG growth over the studied time period, it successfully defers the timing of network reinforcement. Operations impacts arising from change in network losses are sensitive to the existing composition of the network and the operating pattern of the additional demand or generation that is to be connected. As a result the benefits are very wide ranging and must be quantified specifically. 

Increases in renewable distributed generation tend to reduce operations carbon impact from losses and C2C is therefore favoured as a method for capacity release. However, for the cases studied the net impact, whether positive or negative, are typically modest at less than 15% of the equivalent traditional solution net carbon impact.

Related documents


This whitepaper introduces the techniques used to assess the potential net reduction in carbon emissions in C2C over the lifetime of the assets compared to traditional reinforcement and reviews the research to date that has considered the carbon impact of electricity networks.

This review and methodology study examines the academic literature on carbon accounting and the environmental impact of electricity networks.

The purpose of this research is to quantifythe impact of the C2C solution, compare this to traditional reinforcement and understand the major sources of emissions in each to better enable management of distribution networks.

The results from the carbon impact study are presented in two reports. This, the first, considers the C2C trial directly and five cases where proposals for network reinforcement were obviated by the use of the C2C solution.

The C2C solution has multiple consequences in terms of assets, operation of the network and facilitation of new connections. This report is a summary drawing out headline conclusions.

This report contains greater detail on prior studies and the issues germane to the selection of low carbon technologies currently incentivised in the UK, analysed as part of the study of facilitated carbon impact.

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